When multiple views are combined into an integrated model,
rigorous definitions of terms are needed to avoid confusion
among the different structural components.


Aggregate
Object
A higher-level object that is "constructed" of lower-level component objects that are joined together in constraining relations. The properties of the component objects, plus the constraining relations, are what cause the properties of the aggregate object to "emerge."
Aggregation Aggregation is a form of abstraction. It is a conceptual way of viewing "the whole" while filtering out details about its parts. This is sometimes referred to as "seeing the forest for the trees." It recognizes the identity of a "higher level" aggregate object whose characteristics transcend the characteristics of its component parts.
Architecture In the context of integrated modeling, "architecture" refers to the way a business enterprise is designed and constructed. It focuses on the characteristics of the structure that (1) make it a viable business or organization, and (2) make it a recognizable type of business. See also "Enterprise Architecture" below.
Business
Enterprise
A company doing business in a marketplace environment that includes relationships with both customers and suppliers. A business enterprise buys resources from suppliers in the supplier market, adds value by transforming the resources into products, and sells the products to customers in the customer market. The internal architecture of the business enterprise is shaped by the nature of the marketplace environment, including the expectations of potential customers and suppliers, economic, technological and other conditions.
Business
Function
An ongoing functional capability of the business that is sustained over time. A business function is defined by the intersection of a core process with a business subsystem. A business function applies resources to accomplish a particular kind of work in response to incoming work requests. From an Object-Oriented perspective, a business function can be thought of as an "object" that responds to incoming messages.
Business
Process
A prescribed sequence of work steps that is intended to be completed in order to produce a specific result. A business process is initiated by a particular kind of event, has a well-defined beginning and end, and is usually completed in a relatively short period of time. Two types of syntax are used in naming business processes. For high-level processes, the syntax is "object-action" using a noun form followed by a verb form, where the verb takes the form of a present participle (ends in "ing"), e.g., "Product Ordering." For lower-level processes, the syntax is "action-object," where the verb takes the form of an imperative or command to do something, e.g., "Identify Product."
Business
Subsystem
A "layer" of either the Product System or Resource System. A business subsystem provides a coordinating mechanism that extends across all stages of a key business object's lifecycle. This mechanism coordinates the sharing of information and resulting actions among the business functions associated with the object. Each such business function sustains the work capability associated with one stage of the lifecycle. A business subsystem appears as a horizontal box on an integrated model framework diagram. See also "Subsystem" below.
Core Process A major business process that produces an enterprise response to a market-related event. Each Product Core Process is initiated by a Customer Market event, and corresponds to a state in the company's product lifecycle. Each Resource Core Process is initiated by a Supplier Market event, and corresponds to a state in the company's resource lifecycle. The work flow sequence of a core process appears as a vertical box on an integrated model framework diagram.
Core Process
View
A perspective on the business enterprise as seen from the viewpoint of the core process structure. This view focuses on the prescribed workflow sequences by which the enterprise responds to market-related events.
Customer
Market
The marketplace where products are sold to customers. This includes the entire set of existing and potential customers as potential buyers, as well as individual customers who buy and use an instance of the product.
Enterprise
Architecture
The underlying skeletal structure that holds a business enterprise together. The common "backbone" to which all parts of the enterprise are attached. The coordinating framework that enables the organization structure, business functions and processes to collaborate in achieving the company's goals. See also "Architecture" above.
Emergent
Property
Unique properties that "emerge" when component objects are joined together in constraining relations to "construct" a higher level aggregate object. Emergent properties are the inherent functional characteristics of an aggregate object. They are essence of its existence -- without them, there is no aggregate object.
Framework A grid structure where the vertical boxes depict the workflow of core processes, and the horizontal boxes depict business subsystems that control the lifecycles of key business objects. The intersections of core processes with business subsystems form business functions. The Product Framework shows how the enterprise relates to its customer market. The Resource Framework shows how the enterprise relates to its supplier market.
Integrated
Model
A set of diagrams that combines multiple views of the business enterprise within a single, consistent, architectural structure. The System View shows the enterprise functional capabilities that are sustained over time. The Core Process View shows how the enterprise responds to market-related events. The Organization View shows how responsible organizations manage the work of their business functions. The integrated model makes it possible to visualize all parts of the business and how they relate to each other.
Lifecycle The integrated model shows the lifecycles for key business objects. The product framework encompasses the lifecycle of states for the "product" object and its relationships with the customer market, which include defining, developing, ordering, and supporting. The resource framework encompasses the lifecycle of states for the "resource" object and its relationships with the supplier market, which also include defining, developing, ordering, and supporting.
Organization
Structure
The arrangement of organizational units (department, etc.), based on their relationships. As shown in an organization chart, the structure or relationships is usually hierarchical.
Organization
Unit
The generic term for a component at any level of the organization structure, such as "department" or "section." At the bottom level of the organization structure, an organization unit provides direct management of one or more business functions by establishing performance targets and allocating specific resources to accomplish its work. At a higher level of the organization structure, the organization unit is responsible for other organization units.
Organization
View
A perspective on the business enterprise as seen from the viewpoint of the organization structure. This view focuses on the hierarchical management reporting structure, usually shown in the company organization chart.
Product
Framework
A grid representing the architecture of the enterprise product system and its relationships with the customer market. See also "Product System" below.
Product
System
The system by which the enterprise product is produced and sold to customers. It encompasses the entire life cycle of the enterprise product and relationships with the customer market: design, development, order/sale, and support. The Product System is made up of three lower level subsystems: customer market relationship, product package, and product infrastructure.
Resource
Framework
A grid representing the architecture of the enterprise resource system and its relationships with the supplier market. See also "Resource System" below.
Resource
System
The system by which enterprise resources are acquired from suppliers and disseminated to various business functions. It encompasses the entire life cycle of enterprise resources and relationships with suppliers: definition, development, order/purchase, and support. The Resource System is made up of three lower level subsystems: resource service, resource infrastructure, and supplier market relationship.
Subsystem A component of either the product system or the resource system. A subsystem appears as a "layer" within the system. It encompasses the lifecycle of in important business object, where it controls the object's state changes and the transfer of information from one lifecycle state to another. See also "Business Subsystem" above.
Supplier
Market
The marketplace where resources are acquired from suppliers. This includes the entire set of existing and potential suppliers as potential sellers of resources, as well as individual suppliers who sell and support an instance of a resource.
System In the context of integrated modeling, system refers to one of the two top-level structures of the enterprise architecture, the Product System or the Resource System.
System View A perspective on the business enterprise as seen from the viewpoint of the system structure. This view focuses on the subsystem layers that manage key business objects through their lifecycles.



©1995-2012 Ackley Associates   Last revised: 12/10/10